Earth Science


Space, the final frontier. Ok, that’s Star Trek. Astronomy is the study of the universe.


Earth revolves around the sun and, as a result, we get to experience seasons. One revolution around the sun takes 365.24 days. Earth’s orbit with its tilt also influences seasons.


Study of our own planet earth, its composition, structure and processes that act and change earth over time.

Weather and Climate

Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a given place within a short period of time. Climate is basically weather over a long period of time; the behavior pattern of atmosphere in an area during much longer time.

Greenhouse Effect

The absorption and retention of the sun’s radiation by atmosphere that traps heat and keeps the planet warm by increasing surface temperature.

Layers of the Earth

Four concentric layers are inner core, outer core, mantle and crust. We live on the crust.

Plate Tectonics

The outermost layer of earth, the lithosphere (crust + top layer of mantle), has plates that look like jigsaw puzzles. The pieces move slowly in different directions and over time collide or pull away. Hint: Earthquake, volcano.


Most of earth’s crust is made of rocks that are basically bound groups of minerals. Three classes: igneous rocks, metamorphic rocks, and sedimentary rocks.


All natural and artificial (human made) shapes and features of a specific area on the surface of earth or even other planets.